是Antifragile裡Skin in the Game的再延伸
這論文最鼓舞或動人的部份是 4.Moral Luck
Consider the case of two equally reckless drivers, only one of which kills a pedestrian. According to Bernard Williams the unlucky driver is morally guilty of something worse than the other driver (namely manslaughter).
Kantians, by contrast, maintain that both drivers would only be liable for
reckless driving. Both views are confused.What we should say is that from the moral point of view, a certain kind of reckless driving is as bad as manslaughter. When a person drives recklessly he takes upon himself the risk of manslaughter and is accordingly responsible for it if it happens, and for opening himself up to it (which is just as bad from a purely ethical point of view) if it doesn’t (see Sandis 2010). Hegel got it right, then when he wrote not only that ‘[t]he laurels of mere willing are dry leaves that never were green’ but also:
We are not only responsible for known characterizations of our actions and their effects but also for those that we ought to be aware of (even if we are not). Our ignorance does not always relieve us of responsibility for things we have done, because others can claim that, as rational beings we should have known what we were doing even if we did not. Such is the knowledge involved in putting other people’s lives at risk with no skin (of our own) in the game
Bad luck is no excuse when it could have been reasonably foreseen. Foresight should not be restricted here to a particular event. If I know that 1/1000 actions of type A will have a tragic result it is not acceptable to perform thousands of these actions on the grounds that for each one there is only a probability of 1/1000 that something will go wrong. The greater the potential disaster the smaller the probability has to be for an act that could bring it about to be immoral. There is an inverse symmetry between the acceptable probability of risk and the weight of the potential damage being assessed.
如果事情可以適當預見，壞運氣就不是理由。先見不限制在特定事件。如果我知道某行為有千分之一機率造成悲劇性後果，這行為就不應該重複做千次。 （這裡寫的很怪，應該一次都不應該做吧？？） 因為對每個人，都會有千分之一的機率出錯。